# 100 Great Problems of Elementary Mathematics (Dover Books on by Heinrich Dorrie PDF

By Heinrich Dorrie

ISBN-10: 0486318478

ISBN-13: 9780486318479

Difficulties that beset Archimedes, Newton, Euler, Cauchy, Gauss, Monge and different greats, able to problem today's would-be challenge solvers. between them: How is a sundial developed? how will you calculate the logarithm of a given quantity with no using logarithm desk? No complicated math is needed. comprises a hundred issues of proofs.

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Extra info for 100 Great Problems of Elementary Mathematics (Dover Books on Mathematics)

Example text

Sackson gives the following examples of games with a Designer (D) and players A, B, C: If A scores 18, B scores 15, and C scores 14, D's score is 8, or twice the difference between 18 and 14. If A scores 18, B scores 15, and C scores -2, D's score is 40, or twice the difference between 18 and -2. If A scores 12, B scores 7, and C drops out with a score of 0, FIGURE 25 Three stages in probing for the Master Pattern D's score is 19, or twice the difference between 12 and 0, with five points deducted for the single dropout.

Project a 4-sphere on our 3-space and you get a solid ball with every internal point corresponding to two points on the 4-sphere's hypersurface. This too generalizes up the ladder of spaces. The same is true of cross sections. Cut a circle with a line and the cross section is a 1-sphere. or a pair of points. Slice a sphere with a plane and the cross section is a circle. Slice a 4-sphere with a 3-space hyperplane and the cross section is a 3-sphere. (You can't divide a 4-sphere into two pieces with a 2-plane.

Assume now that space has a fourth coordinate, at right angles to the other three, and that the rod is allowed to rotate in 4-space. The free end then generates a unit 4-sphere. Hyperspheres are impossible to visualize nevertheless, their properties can be studied by a simple extension of analytic geometry to more than three coordinates. Spheres and Hyperspheres + + + 31 A circle's Cartesian formula is a2 b2 = r2, where r is the radius. The sphere's formula is a2 b2 c2 = r2. The 4-sphere's formula is a2 b2 c2 d2 = r2, and so on up the ladder of Euclidean hyperspaces.