By Mark Donohue
The sequence builds an in depth selection of top of the range descriptions of languages worldwide. each one quantity bargains a complete grammatical description of a unmarried language including totally analyzed pattern texts and, if acceptable, a thesaurus and different proper details that is to be had at the language in query. There aren't any regulations as to language relations or region, and even if precise realization is paid to hitherto undescribed languages, new and invaluable remedies of higher identified languages also are incorporated. No theoretical version is imposed at the authors; the single criterion is a excessive regular of medical caliber.
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Additional info for A Grammar of Tukang Besi
2. 1 Phoneme inventory Consonantal phonemes: Place: Manner: Plosive, voiceless Plosive, voiced Implosive Fricative Nasal Prenasalised, voiceless Prenasalised, voiced Sonorant BILABIAL P ALVEODENTAL t (b) (d) 6 tf β PALATAL VELAR GLOTTAL (tj) k (d3) 9 h s Q η ί ns m mp 0 ok "d mb r ? N3) 09 1 Note: forms () in brackets are loan phonemes (mainly from Indonesian/Trade Malay), with [if] alternating with [s], and [d] with [ds] (and sometimes [z] as well). 2 Description of the phonemes Here I list the phonemes and their major allophonic variants, with examples of the phonemes in words.
4 Dialects There are many dialect differences in the Tukang Besi language, probably enough to warrant separating the speech of Wanci and Kaledupa from that of Tomea and Binongko, and establishing a northern Tukang Besi and southern Tukang Besi as separate, though very closely related languages (a conclusion also reached by E. J. van den Berg - see Cense 1954). The differences appear to be mainly in the area of the lexicon and allophonic variation (see Donohue forthcoming a); grammatical differences are minimal.
The closest the Tukang Besi come to an endonym is to change the pronunciation to fit their phonological system, making it [tukambesi]. Note that this is distinct from the loan form of the word 'tukang besi', meaning blacksmith, which has been borrowed into the language (alongside Pande tutu and Tuka kabali) as [tukambasi]. Other names used by the people to refer to themselves and their language varieties include: Wakatobi Bahasa Pulo Pogau Ka'umbeda Pogau Wanse Pogau Kahedupa Pogau Tomia Pogau Binongko Pogau Daoa (WAnci, KAledupa, TOmea, Binongko) (island language) (from the folk etymology of the proto-word for 'fact') (for Wanci) (for Kaledupa) (for Tomea) (for Binongko) (trade language used in the market between people from different dialect groups) The word for 'speech, language', pogau, has the additional connotation that is not official, proper, or refined (halus in Malay), while the loanword bahasa has no such connotations.
A Grammar of Tukang Besi by Mark Donohue