By John Batchelor
Excerpt from An Ainu-English-Japanese Dictionary: together with a Grammar of the Ainu Language
As the paintings used to be published through a jap enterprise at Tokyo, approximately one thousand miles from the writer's domestic in Sapporo, the desk of errata could be chanced on to be significantly higher than it can were had he been capable of see the proofs oftener. This needs to be the excuse for thus lengthy an inventory, for which, additionally, each apology is made. The errata belonging to the Dictionary half could be came across on the finish of the Dictionary, whereas these appertaining to the Gram mar might be stumbled on on the finish of the book.
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Extra info for An Ainu-English-Japanese dictionary (including A grammar of the Ainu language.)
21) Old man (in the neighbourhood): ⲏ㠞┞? ’ Boy : 㞚, 㞞 ⲏ㠞㠊㣪. ’ (22) Boy : ⲏ㠞┞? ’ Old man (in the neighbourhood): ??? There are three kinds of honorification in Korean: subject, hearer and object honorification. Subject honorification is realised by the use of the pre-final ending -㔲- as in (23). 3 Map of Korean dialects (23) Subject honorification ㏦┮✺-㧊 㰧-㠦 Ṗ-㔲-㠞-┺. ’ Hearer honorification is now the most commonly used and is realised by different endings. (24a) shows high respect of the speaker towards the hearer, while (24b) reveals the hearer being lower than the speaker.
In fact, these two phonation types are not effective methods of phonation. To begin with, the tone is quiet, and you need to breathe more often than normal in order to continue speaking in this way. Of course, these sounds are inevitably quieter than normal voiced sounds, as the vocal folds are vibrating only partially (breathy sounds) or are not vibrating at all (voiceless sounds). Furthermore, as the vocal folds are entirely or partially open, more air will escape compared to when you produce normal voiced sounds, and it will thus be harder to speak for longer using one breath.
Sounds that are tense tend to be strong sounds with lengthy articulation. With aspiration and tense as class features, we are now able to distinguish between the types of stops and affricates in the Korean language. (7) shows bilabial stops categorised according to the three phonation types of stops and affricates. (7) Korean bilabial stops with(out) tension p (ථ) p* (ද) (voiceless unaspirated (voiceless unaspirated lenis) fortis) ph (ඹ) (voiceless aspirated fortis) In Korean, the voiceless unaspirated lenis is referred to as lax, the voiceless unaspirated fortis as tense, and the voiceless aspirated fortis as aspirated.
An Ainu-English-Japanese dictionary (including A grammar of the Ainu language.) by John Batchelor