Archive For The “Crystallography” Category
By Peter Rudolph
Vol 2A: simple Technologies
Handbook of Crystal progress, 2d version quantity IIA (Basic applied sciences) offers simple progress applied sciences and sleek crystal slicing tools. fairly, the methodical basics and improvement of expertise within the box of bulk crystallization on either commercial and examine scales are explored. After an introductory bankruptcy at the formation of minerals, ruling traditionally the fundamental crystal formation parameters, complicated uncomplicated applied sciences from soften, resolution, and vapour being utilized for examine and creation of the this present day most vital fabrics, like silicon, semiconductor compounds and oxides are provided intimately. The interdisciplinary and normal significance of crystal development for human stay are illustrated.
Vol 2B: development Mechanisms and Dynamics
Handbook of Crystal progress, 2d version quantity IIB (Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics) offers with attribute mechanisms and dynamics accompanying each one bulk crystal development strategy mentioned in quantity IIA. ahead of the atoms or molecules omit from a place within the fluid medium (gas, soften or answer) to their position within the crystalline face they need to be transported within the fluid over macroscopic distances by means of diffusion, buoyancy-driven convection, surface-tension-driven convection, and compelled convection (rotation, acceleration, vibration, magnetic mixing). additional, the warmth of fusion and the half carried via the species on their option to the crystal through conductive and convective shipping has to be dissipated within the sturdy section via well-organized thermal conduction and radiation to keep up a strong propagating interface. also, segregation and capillary phenomena play a decisional position for chemical composition and crystal shaping, respectively. at the present time, the rise of fine quality crystal yield, its measurement growth and reproducibility are valuable stipulations to check the robust financial system.
- Presents the prestige and way forward for Czochralski and flow area development of dislocation-free silicon
- Examines directional solidification of silicon ingots for photovoltaics, vertical gradient freeze of GaAs, CdTe for HF electronics and IR imaging in addition to antiferromagnetic compounds and large alloys for turbine blades
- Focuses on progress of dielectric and engaging in oxide crystals for lasers and non-linear optics
- Topics on hydrothermal, flux and vapour part progress of III-nitrides, silicon carbide and diamond are explored
- Explores capillarity keep watch over of the crystal form on the development from the melt
- Highlights modeling of warmth and mass shipping dynamics
- Discusses keep watch over of convective soften tactics through magnetic fields and vibration measures
- Includes relevant info at the segregation phenomenon and validation of compositional homogeneity
- Examines crystal disorder iteration mechanisms and their controllability
- Illustrates right automation modes for making sure consistent crystal progress process
- Exhibits basics of answer development, gel progress of protein crystals, progress of superconductor fabrics and mass crystallization for nutrition and pharmaceutical industries
By Sander van Smaalen
The crystallography of aperiodic crystals employs many recommendations which are sometimes utilized to periodic crystals. the current textual content has been written less than the belief that the reader is aware strategies like area workforce symmetry, Bragg reflections and vector calculus. This assumption is stimulated by way of the popularity that readers drawn to aperiodic crystals will frequently have a history within the good kingdom sciences, and by way of the truth that many books can be found that care for the crystallography of tronslational symmetric buildings at either introductory and complex degrees.
By Jan Drenth
In this new version of a necessary paintings, the well known researcher Dr. Jan Drenth deals a rigorous and up to date advent to the topic, delivering the theoretical historical past essential to know the way the constitution of proteins is decided at atomic resolution.
By Michel A. Van Hove Ph.D., Shuk Yin Tong Ph.D. (auth.)
Surface technological know-how has skilled a magnificent progress within the final twenty years. the eye has focussed almost always on single-crystal surfaces with, at the atomic scale, really basic and well-defined buildings (for instance, fresh surfaces and such surfaces with restricted quantities of extra overseas atoms and molecules). some of the most basic forms of details wanted approximately strong surfaces issues the relative atomic positions. The geometrical association of floor atoms impacts so much actual and chemical houses of surfaces, the checklist of that is lengthy and encompasses a variety of vital technological purposes: digital floor states, touch potentials, paintings features, oxidation, heterogeneous catalysis, friction, adhesion, crys tal progress and so on. floor crystallography - the choice of relative atomic positions at surfaces - has came upon a profitable instrument in Low-Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED): this system has now made up our minds the atomic positions for almost 100 surfaces, no matter if within the fresh nation or with extra international atoms or molecules. the most objective of this publication is to put up a collection of laptop seasoned grams that has been particularly designed for and commonly utilized in floor crystallography by means of LEED. those courses are in keeping with the dynamical (i.e.
By Nabarro F.R.N.
By Agnes Buka, Lorenz Kramer
In the final two decades the examine of nonlinear nonequilibrium phenomena in spa tially prolonged platforms, with specific emphasis on pattern-forming phenomena, has been one of many very energetic components in physics, showing attention-grabbing ramifi cations into different sciences. in this time the learn of the "classic" structures, like Rayleigh-Benard convection and Taylor vortex move in uncomplicated fluids, has additionally been supplemented through the learn of extra complicated platforms. right here liquid crystals have performed, and are nonetheless enjoying, an enormous function. One may say that liquid crystals offer simply the correct amount and proper of complexity. they're jam-packed with non linearities and provides upward thrust to new symmetry sessions, that are occasionally really easier to accommodate qualitatively, yet they nonetheless let a quantitative description of experiments in lots of instances. in reality one of many points of interest of the sphere is the shut touch among experimentalists and theorists. Hydrodynamic instabilities in liquid crystals had already skilled a interval of extreme learn within the past due Nineteen Sixties and early Nineteen Seventies, yet at the moment neither the ex perimental and theoretical instruments nor the recommendations have been constructed sufficiently a ways to handle the questions that experience due to the fact been stumbled on to be of specific curiosity. The renewed curiosity is usually evidenced by way of the truth that a brand new sequence of workshops has developed. the 1st one happened in 1989 in Bayreuth and united individuals from just about all teams operating in trend formation in liquid crystals.
By Erich H. Kisi
This can be the 1st e-book overlaying the idea, practicalities, and the vast purposes of neutron powder diffraction in fabrics technology, physics, chemistry, mineralogy and engineering. a variety of spotlight functions of neutron powder diffraction are defined within the creation, then the speculation is built and instrumentation defined enough for a go back to the purposes. The ebook covers using neutron powder diffraction within the answer (hard) and refinement (more basic) of crystal and magnetic constructions, purposes of powder diffraction in quantitative section research, extraction of microstructural details from powder diffraction styles, and the purposes of neutron diffraction in stories of elastic houses and for the dimension of residual rigidity. extra concept to underpin those numerous purposes is built as required. a lot of the cloth can be obtainable to senior undergraduates in technological know-how and engineering, in addition to to graduate scholars and extra senior researchers with an curiosity within the method.
By David Paganin
This booklet supplies an intensive therapy of the rapidly-expanding box of coherent x-ray optics, which has lately skilled anything of a renaissance with the provision of third-generation synchrotron assets. it's the first booklet of its type. the writer starts off with a remedy of the basics of x-ray diffraction for either coherent and partly coherent radiation, including the interactions of x-rays with topic. X-ray resources, optics components and detectors are then mentioned, with an emphasis on their position in coherent x-ray optics. numerous features of coherent x-ray imaging are then mentioned, together with holography, interferometry, self-imaging, part distinction and section retrieval. finally, the rules of the recent box of singular x-ray optics are tested. such a lot subject matters are constructed from first ideas, with various references given to the modern examine literature. This publication may be beneficial to x-ray physicists and scholars, including optical physicists and engineers who desire to research extra in regards to the interesting topic of coherent x-ray optics.
By S. Weber
By Yu Kusminov
Lithium niobate crystals have a couple of particular homes. Lithium niobate is even as a ferroelectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric, and has excessive nonlinearly optical and electro-optical coefficients and photorefractive sensitivity. those homes permit those crystals for use broadly in optical and acoustic units, and photorefractive sensitivity, better by means of doping with transitional metals, bargains new probabilities of utilizing lithium niobate as a recording holographic medium. those homes are decided through the crystal constitution of lithium niobate delicate to actual and chemical results. designated realization is given within the e-book to physico-chemical good points of expertise, disruption of stoichiometry in those crystals and detection of this disruption by way of actual equipment. whilst, the information and techniques proposed within the ebook can be utilized in know-how of alternative crystals.