By Danuta Bukatko
"Child improvement" covers every age via early life, concentrating on a unique area of developmental psychology in each bankruptcy and emphasizing concept and study. for you to aid scholars imagine like researchers, the authors current a thematic process that regularly ties findings to the six topics underlying the research of human development--the function of nature and nurture; the effect of sociocultural context; the lively position of the kid; non-stop vs. stage-like improvement; the interplay of varied domain names of improvement; and the prominence of person ameliorations in improvement
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Extra resources for Child Development: A Thematic Approach
Child’s Active Role In keeping with their strong experiential emphasis, behaviorists believe the child’s role in development is passive. Skinner claimed that “a person does not act upon the world, the world acts upon him” (1971, p. 211). According to Skinner, psychologists should abolish references to unobservable mental or cognitive constructs such as motives, goals, needs, or thoughts in their explanations of behavior. Bandura’s social cognitive theory differs from behavior analysis by embracing mental and motivational constructs and processes for interpreting and understanding others as well as the self.
Social Learning Theory Social learning theory emphasizes the importance of learning through observation and imitation of the behaviors displayed by others. Social learning theorists start with the assumption that whether an individual will be friendly, outgoing, confident, and honest rather than shy and perhaps hostile and untrustworthy largely depends on the socialization practices of parents and caregivers throughout that person’s childhood. Although operant and classical conditioning play a substantial role, social learning theorists underscore observational learning, the acquisition of behaviors from listening to and watching other people, as a particularly important means of acquiring new behaviors.
In social cognitive theory, biological and other internal factors along with the environment are believed to play a mutual, interactive role in contributing to development (Bandura, 1989). Social learning theory emphasizes the important role that observation of another person’s behavior plays in learning. By brushing her doll’s hair, this preschooler is imitating the same activity that she herself is experiencing—having her own hair brushed by her mother. Social learning provides an important mechanism by which she and others acquire many desirable customs and behaviors in their society.
Child Development: A Thematic Approach by Danuta Bukatko