By John R. Grace, Hsiaotao Bi (auth.), J. R. Grace, A. A. Avidan, T. M. Knowlton (eds.)
Since the past due Seventies there was an explosion of commercial and educational curiosity in circulating fluidized beds. partially, the eye has arisen as a result of environmental merits linked to CFB (circulating . fluidized mattress) combustion structures, the incorporation of riser reactors utilising cir culating fluidized mattress expertise in petroleum refineries for fluid catalytic cracking and, to a lesser volume, the successes of CFB know-how for calcina tion reactions and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. partially, it was once additionally the case that an excessive amount of realization were dedicated to effervescent fluidized beds and it was once time to maneuver directly to extra advanced and better regime,S of operation. considering the fact that 1980 a couple of CFB techniques were commercialized. there were 5 profitable overseas Circulating Fluidized mattress Confer ences starting in 1985, the latest occurring in Beijing in may well 1996. moreover, we have now witnessed a bunch of alternative papers on CFB funda mentals and functions in journals and different archival courses. There have additionally been a number of assessment papers and books on particular CFB themes. notwithstanding, there was no complete ebook reviewing the sphere and trying to supply an summary of either basics and functions. the aim of this e-book is to fill this vacuum.
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Additional info for Circulating Fluidized Beds
1980) Bed expansion in high velocity fluidization. , 32, 223-232. , Edwards, E. and Owen, H. (1990) Innovative improvements highlight FCC's past and future. , Jan. 33-58. J. A. (1994) Comparative simulation studies on the performance of bubbling and turbulent bed reactors for the oxidative coupling of methane in circulating fluidized bed, in Circulating Fluidized Bed Technology IV (ed. A. 414-421. T. (1994) Flow regime transitions in gas-solid fluidization and vertical transport. D. thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
The particle-particle attractive force and non-elastic collisions give particles a definite tendency to gather. This kind of particle gathering can be called 'clustering', in contrast with 'agglomeration' in which particle gathering is maintained by surface forces (Horio and Clift, 1992). e. structures of higher orders, such as clusters. , 1991). 02 o... , 1995). a gas-rich region, together with the gravity force acting on a solid-rich region, causes relative motion and shear between clusters and gas-rich regions.
Pritchett et al. (1978) first applied similar two-fluid equations to 26 CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BEDS direct numerical simulation of bubbling fluidized beds. The first numerical simulation for circulating fluidized bed conditions was presented by Tsuo and Gidaspow (1990). g. , 1993). Discussions on suspension models are dealt with in detail in Chapter 5. 2) equation of continuity for solid particles: 8(1 - E) 8t + V'. 2 27 Aggregating tendency of suspensions (a) Theoretical and numerical analyses Homogeneous suspensions are almost always unstable.
Circulating Fluidized Beds by John R. Grace, Hsiaotao Bi (auth.), J. R. Grace, A. A. Avidan, T. M. Knowlton (eds.)