By Mark Sebba
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Extra resources for Contact Languages: Pidgins and Creoles
For example, Russian lacks articles and the verb to be in the present tense; Chinese almost totally lacks inflections, while French has the possessive structure X de Y ('X of Y') but nothing corresponding to Y's X in English. Likewise, simple CV syllable structure is widespread, and some languages, such as those of the Polynesian family, have few or no phonologically marked sounds. However, most languages have at most a few of the features from this list, and those that have several are usually complex in other respects; for example, although Chinese lacks inflections it makes very extensive use of tones in its phonology; although Russian lacks a copula and articles, it has a rich system of noun cases and inflections for nouns, verbs and adjectives.
The various pidgins and creoles of West Africa similarly seem to have their origins in both seafaring and trade. 2 - was brought to West Africa by mariners on Portuguese ships. There it became the lingua franca of the slave trade, and the forerunner of the Portuguese-lexicon creoles spoken today in Guine, Cape Verde, Sao Tome, Angolar and Anno bon. It may also have been the precursor of the English pidgin which is today widely spoken in West Africa (West African Pidgin English, or WAPE) and which in some parts of Nigeria is now a creole with native speakers of its own.
Haus i-bik 'the house is big' (in fact adjectives which follow the noun (predicative adjectives) behave like verbs in Melanesian Pidgin, taking the same tense markers bin and bai ). 4 There is no definite or indefinite article (the or a) In fact ol (which also means 'they') is sometimes used like a definite article in the plural (and thus helps to make up for the lack of plural morphology), as in ol meri, 'the women'. Apart from this, articles are absent from Melanesian Pidgin. 1 are in fact fairly typical of pidgin grammars.
Contact Languages: Pidgins and Creoles by Mark Sebba