By R. Braude (auth.), P. L’Hermite, J. Dehandtschutter (eds.)
This book constitutes the court cases of a Workshop held in Bordeaux (France) on eighth - tenth October, 1980, below the auspices of the Commissior: of the ecu groups, as a part of the CEC learn programme on 'Effluents from cattle' and the Concerted motion expense sixty eight bis 'Treatment and Use of Sewage Sludge'. significant alterations have taken position in farm animals construction options lately. essentially the most vital advancements has been within the box of animal foodstuff. Animals are fed to realize greatest liveweight in shut dating with marketplace specifications for carcass and meat caliber. with reference to pig creation, nutritional formula relies on clinical rules and feed features a huge number of elements to provide optimal feed rations for 'standardised' animals. so one can bring up development cost and to enhance feed conversion, copper is extra to the ratio~s of fattening pigs in a few nations, based on the provisions of Council Directives referring to ingredients in feedingstuffs, as final amended by way of the twenty third fee Directive of 4th July 1980.
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Additional resources for Copper in Animal Wastes and Sewage Sludge: Proceedings of the EEC Workshop organised by the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Station d’Agronomie, Bordeaux, France, and held at Bordeaux, October 8–10, 1980
250 mg copper added to the diet produced an average of 708, ranging from 22 to 4 657. Except under the conditions which produced 4 657 (which were very extreme) there were no adverse effects observed in the pigs. What do these figures mean? The high values in control animals and the low values in the treated animals are puzzling. L. Robinson (UK) Dr. Braude mentioned the question of variability in response to copper additions. He said that 15% of pigs do not respond. Is he saying that that number of individual pigs in -39- any group do not respond, or is he saying that there is no response in 15% of experiments?
In the intervening periods, a level of adjuvant could be used which has only growth promotant efficacy. However, the first two programmes are better because they do not disturb the balance of micro-organisms in the intestinal flora. The use of high levels of antibiotics (third programme) is suspected of being responsible for disturbances of the intestinal flora and the possible transmission of multi-resistant micro-organisms to humans. It is very important to know to which levels an additive -35- is constantly effective as a preventing agent, and against which diseases it is effective.
Bacitracin Dose ppm Maximum approved dose EFFICACY OF FEED ADDITIVES AT THE MAXIMUM AUTHORISED LEVEL, OR AT HIGH LEVELS TABLE 2 2. 1. Effect on growth, feed efficiency and mortality The use of antibiotic substances was very common in the 1950s. Very low levels of substances were recognised as being efficient in preventing mortality of runt piglets generally weighing less than 10 kg at 8 weeks (Table 3). At the same time the average daily gain of piglets was increased and the food conversion ratio was decreased for animals up to 30 kg.
Copper in Animal Wastes and Sewage Sludge: Proceedings of the EEC Workshop organised by the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Station d’Agronomie, Bordeaux, France, and held at Bordeaux, October 8–10, 1980 by R. Braude (auth.), P. L’Hermite, J. Dehandtschutter (eds.)