Download e-book for iPad: Crystallography and the World of Symmetry by Sanat K. Chatterjee

By Sanat K. Chatterjee

ISBN-10: 3540698981

ISBN-13: 9783540698982

ISBN-10: 354069899X

ISBN-13: 9783540698999

Symmetry exists in nation-states from crystals to styles, in exterior shapes of dwelling or non-living gadgets, in addition to within the primary debris and the actual legislation that govern them. actually, the hunt for this symmetry is the driver for the invention of many primary debris and the formula of many actual legislation. whereas you can still no longer think a global that is completely symmetrical nor can one an international that is completely asymmetrical. those points of nature are intermingled with one another inseparably. this is often the foundation of the life of aperiodicity manifested within the liquid crystals and likewise quasi-crystals additionally mentioned in “Crystallography and the area of Symmetry”.

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As X-ray or electron diffraction can reveal the internal structures, these symmetry arrangements can only be identified by X-ray, Electro or Neutron diffraction. Obviously, they are not revealed in the external shape of the pattern. These symmetry elements are classified as microscopic symmetry elements. There are two such types of symmetry elements: (i) glide plane of symmetry and (ii) screw axis of symmetry. Glide plane of symmetry: It is a combination of reflection and translation of the motif. It is explained by Fig.

This gives rise to plenty of Laue spots all symmetrically arranged as those of the reciprocal points in the reciprocal lattice. ). As α, β, and γ are the angles between the axes in the direct lattice, α∗ , β ∗ , and γ ∗ will be the corresponding angles between the axes in the reciprocal space. It can be mentioned here that as in a particular type of lattice, different shapes of unit cells are possible (this has already been explained in an earlier chapter); in the corresponding reciprocal lattice, also different shapes of the unit cells are possible.

In Figs. 3, potential energy change and subsequent emissions of K characteristic radiations, the X-ray tube used for the production of X-rays, and the X-ray spectra showing both the continuous and characteristic radiations are shown, respectively. Now, whenever X-rays are emitted from the metal target, the radiation contains both the general and characteristic radiations, and in most of the diffraction procedures monochromatic radiation is required. This monochromatization of X-ray spectra is obtained by absorbing the Kβ radiation by an absorber (filter) of optimum thickness.

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Crystallography and the World of Symmetry by Sanat K. Chatterjee

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