By Timothy J. Sluckin, David A. Dunmur, Horst Stegemeyer
Liquid crystal technological know-how underlies the expertise of approximately part the present exhibit know-how by way of price, an now worthy a few $10 billion every year around the world. the basic technology straddles the disciplines of chemistry, physics, engineering, arithmetic and computing device technology. between liquid crystal scientists this present day there's a lot curiosity within the historic strategy that has introduced the topic to its current point. The old roots lie within the years following 1888, back within the interwar years, and eventually within the overdue 60s and 70s.This ebook has amassed very important papers within the improvement of liquid crystal technological know-how into one reference quantity. the gathering is split into sections, every one of that's prefaced through a quick remark, touching on the historic-scientific context of the time. a few of these papers can be found for the 1st time in English. extra smooth papers hold a brief observation from the unique writer, supplying memories of the context within which the paintings used to be conducted and what its effect has been.Crystals that circulate is geared toward liquid crystal scientists- from no matter what historical past- physics, arithmetic, chemistry, engineering or desktop technology. Historians of technology also will locate this an invaluable reference.
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Additional info for Crystals That Flow: Classic Papers from the History of Liquid Crystals (The Liquid Crystals Book Series)
Despite the importance of this paper for the development Page 10 of the subject, only once did he return to liquid crystals. This was in an extensive paper in 1906,10 in which he briefly mentioned that the condensation products of aromatic aldehydes with benzidine resulted in Schiff bases, which exhibited the properties of Lehmann’s ‘flowing crystals’. Gattermann’s contribution is remarkable not only because it was an assay by a well-known scientist into this field, but also because it provided a solid foundation for much of the work which came later.
Most of his results are not specifically of interest in a liquid crystal context. Naturally there was much discussion concerning speculations on the exact chemical formula of cholesterol; is it C26H44O as suggested by Gerhardt? 1 He noted that a number of previous workers, such as Raymann,2 Löbisch3 and Planar,4 had observed some dramatic colour effects on cooling cholesteryl acetate or related compounds just above the solidification temperature. He himself found the same phenomenon both in cholesteryl acetate and in cholesteryl benzoate, which has the chemical formula C27H45·C7H5O2.
An alternative but related picture, supported by Tammann and Walther Nernst (1864–1941), proposed that the so-called liquid crystal phase was rather a colloidal emulsion, akin to milk or vinaigrette, in which droplets of one liquid are suspended in another. Colloid science was at that stage relatively young, though no longer in its infancy. The founding father is generally reckoned to be the Scottish chemist Thomas Graham (1805–69). It is to Graham that we owe many of the important terms in colloid science, including the appellation itself, colloid from the Greek word кoλλα, meaning glue.
Crystals That Flow: Classic Papers from the History of Liquid Crystals (The Liquid Crystals Book Series) by Timothy J. Sluckin, David A. Dunmur, Horst Stegemeyer