By Leonard Lee Grigsby
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In some cases, the generator is connected to the system by means of circuit breakers located in the switchyard of the generating plant. The generator circuit breaker may be of the oil filled, air magnetic, air blast, or compressed gas insulated type, depending on the specific application. The circuit breaker is closed as part of the generator synchronizing sequence and is opened (tripped) either by operator control, as part of the automatic unit stopping sequence, or by operation of protective relay devices in the event of unit fault conditions.
While the generator may be vertical or horizontal, the majority of new installations are vertical. The basic components of a vertical generator are the stator (frame, magnetic core, and windings), rotor (shaft, thrust block, spider, rim, and field poles with windings), thrust bearing, one or two guide bearings, upper and lower brackets for the support of bearings and other components, and sole plates which are bolted to the foundation. Other components may include a direct connected exciter, speed signal generator, rotor brakes, rotor jacks, and ventilation systems with surface air coolers (IEEE, 1095).
The remaining processing follows the steps of single-crystal silicon, and cell efficiencies in excess of 15% have been achieved for relatively large area cells. Multicrystalline material still maintains the basic properties of single-crystal silicon, including the indirect bandgap. Hence, relatively thick cells with textured surfaces have the highest conversion efficiencies. Multicrystalline silicon modules are commercially available and are recognized by their ‘‘speckled’’ surface appearance. 3 Thin Silicon (Buried Contact) Cells The current flow direction in most PV cells is between the front surface and the back surface.
Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution, (Electric Power Engineering) by Leonard Lee Grigsby