By Sonja Krause, Bina Zvilichovsky, Mary E. Galvin (auth.), Barry R. Jennings (eds.)
Some seven years sooner than Kerr's loss of life, Larmor proposed that electrical birefringence had its foundation within the orientation of anisotropic molecules or components in the it seems that isotropic medium. the speculation for this idea used to be formulated by means of Langevin. in the course of the subsequent part century, occasional measurements have been made either to characterise the phenomenon and to guage the suitable physico-chemical parameters of natural beverages and molecular fluids. throughout the 1930-40 period, Staudinger and others verified the life in nature of big molecules and colloidal debris. considering that point it has slowly yet more and more been realised that those substantial molecules or debris usually have rather huge dipole moments, are commonly anisotropic in constitution and for that reason, in answer or suspension, supply upward thrust to major electrical birefringence indications. additionally, there were 3 digital suggestions that have drastically eased the experimental dimension of the impression for such fabrics. those have been the advance of photomultiplier tubes for detection, of oscillo scope~ for reveal and of excessive voltage turbines constructing bursts or pulses of power distinction. The final pointed out allow the experi menter to review the Kerr impression not just for its amplitude but in addition within the time area. The charges of molecular reaction to the switching of the electrical box lead on to info at the measurement and geo metry of the constituent molecules and debris in a dilute resolution or suspension.
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Extra info for Electro-Optics and Dielectrics of Macromolecules and Colloids
COLLIMATING LENS The electric dichroism instrument of Allen and Van Holde (1). zation which are passed into separate photo-tubes. The subtraction circuit produces the parallel signal minus the perpendicular signal which can be related to the reduced dichroism parameter, L:I E IE by the methods of Allen and Van Holde (1). This instrument is convenient but does not result in a significant improvement in signal to noise ratio (SiN). The application of PSD to dichroism instrumentation is also not a new idea.
The modulation frequency must be high enough so that many samplings of each polarization form are made during the time of application of the electric field pulse. Since pulse lengths range from N 10 ~ sec to several msec, we have chosen a modulation frequency of 1 MHz. This then defines the carrier frequency for the PSD. Since this is a very high frequency for PSD software techniques were used to mimic the behaviour of the PSD instrumentation. ELECTRIC DICHROISM INSTRUMENT 59 THE INSTRUMENT Phase sensitive detection is a means to extract information from a signal where this information is at the same frequency and has same phase relationship to a reference signal.
12 is transformed to prolate or oblate spheroidal coordinates (10). In the case of a prolate spheroid, the expansion coefficients become: ~l ~2 (13) where e is the eccentricity of the spheroid and c is the halffocal distance. The low-angle approximation is applied through expansion of the spherical Bessel function in powers of (qr) and truncation of the series with terms of order (qr)2. J (14) (15) dp with a squared radius of gyration of: R2 g 1 2 = - (3 - 2 e ) a 5 2 (16) and the constant a equal to the length of the semi-major axis of the ellipse.
Electro-Optics and Dielectrics of Macromolecules and Colloids by Sonja Krause, Bina Zvilichovsky, Mary E. Galvin (auth.), Barry R. Jennings (eds.)