By Stephen L. Vaughn
The Encyclopedia of yankee Journalism explores the differences present in print media, radio, tv, and the web. This paintings seeks to rfile the function of those varied sorts of journalism within the formation of America's realizing and response to political campaigns, warfare, peace, protest, slavery, client rights, civil rights, immigration, unionism, feminism, environmentalism, globalization, and extra. This paintings additionally explores the intersections among journalism and different phenomena in American Society, reminiscent of legislations, crime, company, and intake. The evolution of journalism's moral criteria is mentioned, in addition to the real libel and defamation trials that experience prompted journalistic perform, its criminal defense, and criminal duties. issues coated comprise: institutions and organisations; old assessment and perform; members; Journalism in American background; legislation, Acts, and laws; Print, Broadcast, Newsgroups, and companies; applied sciences.
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12 The Alien and Sedition Acts arose in the context of bitter political tensions with England and France and angry divisions within the United States, a new nation fearing for its very survival. Although France provided crucial support to the Americans during the War for Independence, France was angered by the United States’ Jay Treaty of 1794 which was seen as favoring England. French raids on American shipping further heightened tensions. After the infamous “XYZ affair” in which American envoys in France were asked to provide the then-enormous sum of a quarter-million dollars as an American war loan, the price for France’s willingness to negotiate with the United States, Americans were infuriated.
The arrival of the penny press lifted much of the financial pressures from the publishers and allowed them to start offering products without a partisan slant. Ironically, it was advertising that initially allowed publishers freedom from partisan financiers or supporters. Once they were able to defray more of the costs through advertising, publishers started focusing on audiences that would attract more advertisers. In order to attract the most advertisers and to be able to charge higher prices for the advertisements, publishers needed to increase the circulation of their papers.
Youth groups including 4H and Future Farmers of America arose mid-century and also published. The New Deal during the Great Depression of the 1930s stimulated agricultural journalism. The Works Projects Administration (WPA) also sponsored the writing of extensive histories of horticulture and other agricultural development in states such as Minnesota. Radio and Television Twentieth-century agricultural journalism ushered in farm radio. Regular weather reporting began on University of Wisconsin’s 9XM, America’s first licensed radio station, on January 3, 1921, three months before the first exclusively farm station, WDZ in Tuscola, Illinois went on the air.
Encyclopedia of American Journalism by Stephen L. Vaughn