By Edward L Queen II, Stephen R Prothero, Gardiner H Shattuck Jr., Fairfax M Cone Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus of the History of Modern Christianity Martin E Marty
This encyclopedia outlines the philosophers, personalities, social matters, and cultural histories of non secular practices all through American background.
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Extra info for Encyclopedia of American Religious History
When the attempt failed, Charles, convinced by his mother that the Protestants would seek revenge, authorized a concerted attack on French Protestants. The result, known as the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, began in Paris on August 24, 1572. The massacre was a combination of a planned attack by the king’s guard and the army and mob violence. Over the course of a few weeks, thousands of Huguenots were slaughtered. Modern historians claim that the number killed in Paris alone was about 3,000, with an additional 10,000 to 20,000 deaths throughout the rest of the country.
Only in 1628 would William Harvey announce his discovery of the circulation of blood. Isaac Newton would publish his Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica laying out the theory of gravity only in 1687, less than a century before the signing of the Declaration of Independence. Intellectually, the period was one of great ferment, and innumerable ideas were challenging traditional beliefs about the universe, government, and even the economy. Despite the tremendous movements during the 16th and 17th centuries toward creating the mental universe of the modern world, the overwhelming majority of the people were basically premodern.
Even one Spanish archbishop was caught in the Inquisition’s net at this time and accused of Protestant tendencies. Spain also enforced this religious uniformity within its New World colonies. It forbade the immigration of Protestants, Jews, Muslims, and New Christians (Jewish and Muslim converts to the fourth generation, under the laws of limpieza de sangre, or purity of blood) into the colony. Spain attempted to enforce these laws as strongly in the colonies as they were in Spain itself. Given the liabilities under which the descendants of Jews and Muslims labored in the Iberian Peninsula, it should come as no surprise that many attempted to settle in the new colonies (see JUDAISM ; ISLAM).
Encyclopedia of American Religious History by Edward L Queen II, Stephen R Prothero, Gardiner H Shattuck Jr., Fairfax M Cone Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus of the History of Modern Christianity Martin E Marty