By Shannon M. Barton-Bellessa
According to popularity within the past due Nineteen Sixties and early Seventies that conventional incarceration used to be no longer operating, choices to straightforward legal settings have been sought and built. a type of alternatives―community-based corrections―had been conceived within the Nineteen Fifties as a method that will end up extra revolutionary, humane, and potent, quite with those who had dedicated much less severe felony offenses and for whom incarceration, with consistent publicity to severe offenders and profession criminals, may turn out extra destructive than rehabilitative. the choice of neighborhood corrections has advanced to develop into a considerable a part of the legal justice and correctional procedure, spurred in recent times now not loads by way of a revolutionary, humane philosophy as by way of dramatically expanding felony populations, court docket orders to "fix" overextended felony settings, and an fiscal look for fee rate reductions. even if group correction courses were in position for a few forty years now, to this point no complete reference source has tackled this subject. available and jargon-free and to be had in either print and digital codecs, the one-volume Encyclopedia of group Corrections will discover all features of neighborhood corrections, from its philosophical beginning to its present inception.
Features & Benefits:
- 150 signed entries (each with pass References and extra Readings) are prepared in A-to-Z style to offer scholars easy accessibility to the whole variety of issues in neighborhood corrections.
- A thematic Reader's consultant within the entrance topic teams entries by means of extensive topical or thematic parts to make it effortless for clients to discover similar entries at a glance.
- In the digital model, the Reader's consultant combines with an in depth Index and the pass References to supply clients with handy search-and-browse capacities.
- A Chronology within the again subject is helping scholars placed person occasions into broader historic context.
- A word list offers scholars with concise definitions to key phrases within the field.
- A source consultant to vintage books, journals, and websites (along with the extra Readings accompanying every one access) publications scholars to extra assets of their learn journeys.
- An Appendix bargains information from the Bureau of Justice.
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Extra resources for Encyclopedia of Community Corrections
Crime in the United States. S. Department of Justice, 2010. -2010 Green, D. A. 6/6 (2009). Hagan, F. E. Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology, 8th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2010. Hartney, C. and S. Marchinna. S. Voters Toward Nonserious Offenders and Alternatives to Incarceration. Oakland, CA: National Council on Crime and Delinquency, 2009. Hills, S. L. Corporate Violence: Injury and Death for Profit. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1987. King, A. and S. Maruna.
Thus, program involvement, which cannot be mandated, was a key variable in improved outcomes. Additional research shows that those who are engaged in helping others recover had better abstinence records, supporting the helping principle and clarifying the process of 12-step programs. Also, both general and alcohol-specific support networks are related to short-term post-treatment abstinence, but only alcohol-specific support networks are positively associated with longer-term post-treatment abstinence.
This led to the further expansion of this approach and the further refinement of the methodology and techniques for developing reliable instruments. Although varying in the type of information gathered, all instruments share a similar methodological basis. By studying a large number of prior offenders’ cases, certain factors related to risk could be extracted. These factors were then retrospectively validated using cases with both a low expectation of recidivism (or risk), and those with a high expectation of recidivism.
Encyclopedia of Community Corrections by Shannon M. Barton-Bellessa