By Roy Shephard; Per-Olof Astrand
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Thus, following the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City (altitude zgoom), no world records in middle- and long-distance running events were broken when world-class runners returned to sealevel conditions after spending several weeks at high altitude. As discussed in Chapter 3, there is convincing evidence that the central circulation limits maximal oxygen intake. It therefore makes sense that stress on this system should elicit a positive adaptation. Nevertheless, training at less than 100%of maximal oxygen intake will also improve maximal oxygen transport (see Chapter 28).
It was mentioned above that the central circulation seems to be the limiting factor for maximal aerobic power. In endurance events, peripheral factors are quite decisive. As indicated in Fig. 4, marathon runners are not necessarily champions in terms of their maximal oxygen intake. Other qualities, just mentioned, are very important for success. Elite marathon runners and cross-country skiers have a high percentage of slow-twitch fibres, about 80%, compared with about 50% in unselected subject groups.
10 of an atmosphere), but when underwater, the rise in ambient pressure necessarily causes this ceiling to decrease as the ambient pressure rises. The total flux of carbon dioxide is usually a little less than that for oxygen. 9, signifying that carbohydrate metabolism is providing most of the food the body requires. min-I. However, the body reserves of glycogen become exhausted if an event continues for longer than about ioomin. The main source of energy then becomes fat. 8 or lower, corresponding to a maximal carbon dioxide flux of 4 .
Endurance in Sport by Roy Shephard; Per-Olof Astrand