By John P. Houston, Helen Bee and David C. Rimm (Auth.)
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Additional resources for Essentials of Psychology
Techniques for brain study Before we discuss the structure and functions of the brain, it would be helpful to consider the methods physiological psychologists use in studying this great neural structure. Typically, study of the brain is carried out by some combination of three basic techniques: lesions or surgical ablation, electrical or chemical stimulation, and recordings of the electrical activity produced in the brain. Lesions and surgical ablation Having noted that injury to the brain results in behavioral disorders, early scientists began experimenting with procedures that destroy the tissue at a particular brain site in animals.
To study such relationships, Fechner developed a series of strategies, which formed one of the cornerstones of experimental psychology for many decades. Of the four men, Wilhelm Wundt is usually described as the "founder" of modern psychology. Much of his work actually came after Fechner's. But unlike Fechner, Wundt labeled himself a psychologist, not a physiologist, and clearly stated that this was a new science. He established the first psychological journal, wrote one of the first psychology texts in 1874, and founded the first major psychological laboratory, in Leipzig.
B. Watson, an American. In 1913, Watson proposed an entirely new view of the subject matter and method of psychology. He expressly rejected introspection as a method and further argued that the study of "consciousness," "mind," "attention," or their equivalents, was fundamentally unscientific. Instead, Watson argued that the only proper subject of study for psychologists was observable behavior. Furthermore, only behaviors that could be defined in terms of objectively measurable stimuli and responses could or should be studied.
Essentials of Psychology by John P. Houston, Helen Bee and David C. Rimm (Auth.)