By Ruediger Paschotta
Fiber optics became one of many crucial components of recent optical know-how. Early paintings has ordinarily enthusiastic about the transmission of sunshine over lengthy distances, rather to be used in optical fiber communications. extra paintings has significantly increased the applying parts of optical fibers, which now additionally contain fields like fiber amplifiers, fiber lasers, supercontinuum new release, pulse compression, and fiber-optic sensors. This range of functions has been enabled by way of numerous sorts of optical fibers, which may vastly range in lots of respects. This box advisor offers an outline of optical fiber know-how. It not just describes many differing types of fibers and their houses, but additionally offers in a compact shape the proper actual foundations. refined arithmetic, e.g., referring to fiber modes, aren't incorporated, as such matters are coated intimately by means of a number of textbooks. either passive and energetic (amplifying) fibers are mentioned, and an outline on fiber nonlinearities and the applying of lively fibers in amplifiers and lasers is incorporated. the big bibliography comprises many beneficial references, protecting either pioneering paintings and later seminal articles and books. This advisor might be very precious for a large viewers, together with practitioners in in addition to researchers.
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Additional resources for Field Guide to Optical Fiber Technology (SPIE Field Guide Vol. FG16)
The (linear) power losses are usually quantified in decibels per kilometer (dB/km). They strongly depend on the type of fiber, various fabrication details, the optical wavelength, and the bend radius. Intrinsic losses are those losses with fundamental origins, which cannot be removed without using an entirely different material: Intrinsic light absorption can occur both because of electronic transitions (particularly for ultraviolet light) and vibrational resonances (in the mid infrared) and their overtones (extending into the near infrared).
This polarization mode dispersion (PMD) leads not only to random changes of the polarization state of light, but also to pulse broadening. Even complete temporal separation of polarization components can occur, and such effects can limit the data rate of a telecom system. The broadening (or splitting) occurs because the group delay of some fiber span depends on the input polarization. The difference of group delay between the two principal states of polarization is called the differential group delay (DGD).
Additionally, the grating design gives more freedom for tailoring the higher-order dispersion. 40 Optical Fiber Technology: Nonlinear Effects in Fibers Nonlinear Pulse Compression There are also nonlinear compression techniques, where typically the Kerr nonlinearity is used for increasing the spectral width, and a suitable amount of chromatic dispersion (inside or outside the nonlinear device) removes the pulse chirp, thus minimizing the pulse duration. Various variants of this technique can be implemented with fibers: Pulses that are originally unchirped can be spectrally broadened in a normally dispersive optical fiber and then dispersively compressed in a fiber with anomalous dispersion or in some other optical element, such as a pair of diffraction gratings.
Field Guide to Optical Fiber Technology (SPIE Field Guide Vol. FG16) by Ruediger Paschotta