By Luis Garrido
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Additional resources for Fluctuations and Stochastic Phenomena in Condensed Matter
The third item of information (which may or may not be included) is a weight or some other item which deﬁnes the sample design, such as the primary sampling unit (psu). The standard data ﬁle described above is also referred to as a ﬂat ﬁle or a rectangular ﬁle. There are many variations and adaptations of the standard ﬁle, especially when recording multilevel (hierarchical) or longitudinal data. However, details of additional data structures are not given here but are presented alongside the relevant statistical models.
The advantage is that more of the data is used compared with casewise deletion as fewer cases are deleted (or more are retained) at each stage of the analysis. The disadvantages are that the sample size diﬀers for diﬀerent parts of the analysis, making the calculation of the standard errors diﬃcult. Perhaps more importantly from a practical point of view, the model still has to be derived from the summary statistics – a task that is not possible within SPSS. It can be done within Stata but it is not straightforward as it requires knowledge of a model’s underlying mathematical structure and knowledge of matrix algebra.
161 The odds ratio compares the odds for males with those of females (or the odds for females with those of males – it does not matter which). 161 thus males are about two and a half times more likely to be sentenced to custody than females. 416 thus females are only 40% as likely to be sentenced to custody as males. So far we have considered the odds of males and females receiving a custodial sentence, but we could easily extend our analysis to consider the odds of males and females receiving alternative sentences.
Fluctuations and Stochastic Phenomena in Condensed Matter by Luis Garrido