By Dietrich Stoyan

Partly I the reader is brought to the equipment of measuring the fractal size of abnormal geometric constructions. half II demonstrates vital sleek equipment for the statistical research of random shapes. The statistical conception of aspect fields, with and with out marks, is brought partially III. all of the 3 sections concentrates at the mathematical principles, instead of exact proofs, and will be learn independently.

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**Sample text**

So, 36 V. Beﬀara conformal invariance for Tα and the previous remark implies that fα¯ (Ω, A, B, C, D) still only depends on the modulus of the conformal rectangle – in other words, if critical percolation Tα is conformally invariant in the scaling limit, that is also the case on Tα¯ . Now assume conformal invariance in the scaling limit for two choices of the modulus in the upper-half plane; these moduli can always be written as α and α = ϕβ (α) for an appropriate choice of β ∈ H \ {i}. , that it is not constant), and that there exist two conformal rectangles with the same modulus and whose images by ϕβ have diﬀerent moduli.

Beﬀara Proposition 2. Let T be a 3-regular graph of genus 1: Then, for every α ∈ H, there is a balanced embedding of Tˆ in the complex plane with modulus α. Moreover, this embedding is unique up to translations of the plane. Proof. We only give a sketch of the proof, because expanding it to a full proof is both straightforward and tedious. The main remark is that any periodic embedding which minimizes the sum S2 , over a period, of the squared lengths of its edges is balanced: Indeed, the gradient, with respect to the position of a given vertex, of S2 is exactly the diﬀerence between this point and the barycenter of its neighbors.

However, actual convergence of discrete models to SLE in the scaling limit is known for only a few models. The case on which we focus in this paper is that 32 V. Beﬀara of percolation. The topic of conformal invariance for percolation has a long history – see [13] and references therein for f an in-depth discussion of it. In the case of site-percolation on the triangular lattice, it is a celebrated result of Smirnov ([16]) that indeed the limit exists and is conformally invariant. While the proof is quite simple and extremely elegant (see Section 3 below and references therein), it is very speciﬁc to that particular lattice, to the point of being almost magical; it is a very natural question to ask how it can be generalized to other cases, and in particular to bond-percolation on the square lattice.

### Fractals, random shapes and point fields by Dietrich Stoyan

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