By Erik Hollnagel
This Handbook serves as a unmarried resource for theories, types, and strategies with regards to cognitive activity layout. It offers the medical and theoretical foundation required via business and educational researchers, in addition to the sensible and methodological suggestions wanted by way of practitioners who face difficulties of creating secure and potent human-technology systems.
Fundamental throughout a variety of disciplines, from army structures to client items and strategy industries, cognitive job layout covers the total life-cycle of labor from pre-analysis, specification, layout, danger review, implementation, education, day-by-day operation, fault discovering, upkeep, and upgrading. It applies to humans, subtle machines, and to human-machine ensembles. This finished quantity summarizes the broad, around the globe event with cognitive activity layout because the Nineteen Eighties; it defines the cutting-edge and descriptions the way forward for this ever-developing field.
Aimed on the graduate and postgraduate point, the Handbook of Cognitive activity Design is acceptable to classes with regards to the layout of human-technology structures, interplay layout, cognitive engineering, and utilized business engineering.
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Extra info for Handbook of Cognitive Task Design (Human Factors and Ergonomics)
Goals may be successively unpacked to reveal a nested hierarchy of goals and subgoals. This process of decomposition, also referred to as redescription, has the beneﬁt, according to the general principle proposed by Chapanis (1951), of comprising an economical way of locating sources of general system error (actual or potential) in failure to attain speciﬁc subgoals. 20 ANNETT Operations: Input, Action, and Feedback An operation is the fundamental unit of analysis. An operation is speciﬁed by a goal, the circumstances in which the goal is activated (the Input), the activities (Action) that contribute to goal attainment, and the conditions indicating goal attainment (Feedback); hence operations are sometimes referred to as IAF units.
HTA is probably best seen as a systematic search strategy that is adaptable for use in a variety of different contexts and purposes within the human factors enterprise (Shepherd, 1998). Origins of HTA During the 1950s, new technology was introducing major changes in the design of industrial and military tasks. In particular, “automation,” while reducing physical effort, was increasing the mental effort required to monitor and control complex machinery. The classical methods of analysing tasks, such as Gilbreth’s motion study (Gilbreth, 1911), which had been in use for half a century, were proving inadequate to describe tasks of increasing complexity and ever more important mental content.
5. Recheck validity of decomposition with stakeholders. 1. Stakeholders invited to conﬁrm analysis, especially identiﬁed goals, and performance criteria. 2. Revert to step 4 until misinterpretations and omissions have been rectiﬁed. 6. Identify signiﬁcant operations in light of purpose of analysis. 1. Identify operations failing p × c criterion. 2. , complex plans, high workload, dependent on teamwork, or specialist knowledge. 7. Generate and, if possible, test hypotheses concerning factors affecting learning and performance.
Handbook of Cognitive Task Design (Human Factors and Ergonomics) by Erik Hollnagel