By Mohammad Rafiq Siddiqi
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Extra resources for Tylenchida : parasites of plants and insects
TECHNIQUES For identiﬁcation and taxonomic study, good, clean specimens showing most anatomical details are essential. The proper killing and ﬁxing of nematodes are the most important steps in obtaining good results. Permanent mounts are essential for long-term preservation. Details on the extraction, killing, ﬁxing and mounting procedures of specimens are given by several authors (Oostenbrink, 1960; Thorne, 1961; Hooper, 1969; Southey, 1970; Taylor, 1971; Ayoub, 1977). Collection and Storage Soil from the rhizosphere is collected after removing the top 3–5 cm of soil and litter layer.
T. Goodey (1932) proposed a large number of new combinations with Anguillulina because he thought Tylenchus was a synonym of Anguillulina. The inclusion of free-living and animal-parasitic nematodes in a combined classiﬁcation was done by Wülker (1924), who believed (see Wülker, 1929) that Ascaroidea were direct descendants of free-living marine forms. Cobb’s (1893) monograph, Nematodes, mostly Australian and Fijian contained several tylenchid nematodes, including Radopholus similis, which he proposed on the basis of the male as Tylenchus similis.
G. de Man produced excellent monographs on soil, plant and freshwater nematodes, which appeared in 1876, 1880, 1884 and 1921. His type specimens are deposited in the Zoological Museum of the University of Amsterdam, and these were restudied by Loof (1961). It is over 100 years since de Man (1884) ﬁrst used the formula of ␣, ␤, ␥ (now a, b, c) for measuring nematodes. The de Manian formula is universally used in the taxonomy of the Tylenchida today. de Man (1921) gave us the new tylenchid genera Ecphyadophora, Hemicycliophora and Psilenchus, and new species which later became types of new genera, namely, Hoplolaimus annulifer for Nothocriconema and Tylenchus costatus for Coslenchus.
Tylenchida : parasites of plants and insects by Mohammad Rafiq Siddiqi