By Michael Kort
Detailing the social, fiscal, and political alterations and crises that the folks of Russia have needed to suffer, this e-book offers a complete account of this giant country's heritage. It comprises assurance at the conquest and rule of Russia via the Mongol Golden Horde; and the reign of terror via Ivan the negative.
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Extra info for A Brief History of Russia
During this era Russia’s centuries-long disunity came to an end, as Ivan annexed most of the other Russian principalities, quadrupling Moscow’s territory in the process. So did the centuries of painful and humiliating subservience to the Mongols when, in 1480, Ivan officially declared Russia independent of the Golden Horde. Despite serious setbacks, Ivan skillfully managed Moscow’s relations with the powerful non-Russian states of the region, including Tatar polities other than the Golden Horde and Lithuania and Sweden, powerful European monarchies to the west.
The only bright spot in this pitch-black night of defeat and destruction was Novgorod. Spared from attack by the Mongols from the east, it was able to make a stand against Swedish and German invaders from the west. The victory over the Swedes took place on the Neva River at the Gulf of Finland. In honor of this victory, Novgorod’s Prince Aleksandr, who had led his city’s forces, became known as Aleksandr Nevsky (“of the Neva,” 1220–63). Two years later Nevsky defeated the invading Teutonic Knights on the ice of Lake Peipus, a large, kidney-shaped body of water about 120 miles west of Novgorod that today stands astride much of the current border between Russia and Estonia.
Whether this request was ever made is debatable, and it is just as likely that this episode found its way into the Primary Chronicle to legitimize the princely dynasty that established itself among the East Slavs at the time. In any case, it appears that in 862 a group of Varangians led by a prince named Rurik took power in Novgorod, a trading city in the northwest near the Baltic Sea. Twenty years later Rurik’s successor, Oleg (d. 913), conquered the more centrally located city of Kiev, which then became the capital of Kievan Rus.
A Brief History of Russia by Michael Kort