By J. Bruce Amstutz
Whilst Soviet army forces invaded Afghanistan in past due 1979, the invasion used to be, right away, an try and keep a tottering Marxist executive and a caution to either East and West that the Brezhnev Doctrine of "necessary intervention" will be enforced.
Dr. J. Bruce Amstutz, U. S. cost d’affaires in Kabul from 1977 to 1980, starts his therapy of the 1st 5 years of Soviet career with an ancient evaluation of years of Russian meddling in Afghan affairs. He follows this account with a first-hand document of the 1979 invasion, then analyzes that intervention from political, army, and financial views. one of the very important matters Dr. Amstutz discusses are the varied Afghan political factions - pro-Soviet and resistance - their leaders, the human rights and refugee difficulties, diplomatic efforts to settle the clash, and Soviet measures to repress and indoctrinate the Afghans.
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Extra info for Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation
Vladimir Kuzichkin, who defected in London, reported that Babrak Karmal had been a "KGB agent for many years. "" Though the PDPA had been beset by bitter factionalism almost from its inception, and had a small membership (less than half of I percent of the population), it was able lo seize political power a scant 13 years after its establishment. The party's remarkable success was due to several factors. One was the faltering development of democratic political institutions in Afghanistan. Another was suppression, during Presidjnt Mohammad Daoud's strong-man rule (1973-78).
79 The main impelling factors probably were the two discussed below: (1) Moscow feared that the Marxist government in Kabul was collapsing, which if it occurred would threaten Soviet prestige and its newly enhanced strategic foothold in a border state. (2) Were President Amin to manage to remain in power (by obtaining non-Soviet support), his mounting distrust of the Kremlin would lead to a diminished Soviet influence. Moscow also must have calculated that it could intervene without too much international cost.
The Russians in 1900 requested the right to establish direct relations with the Afghan government to settle border and other problems. The British stalled on the request but the Russians pressed. Finally, after the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05, Britain and Russia began negotiations to demarcate the interests of the two rival powers in Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet. These talks led to the 1907 Convention of St. Petersburg, by which Russia agreed again that Afghanistan lay outside its sphere of influence.
Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation by J. Bruce Amstutz