By Mike James (Auth.)
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Additional resources for Artificial Intelligence in Basic
Most problems either turn out to be too difficult to understand quickly or too easy to present any challange to the method under discussion. Trying to find a suitable example of a two-person game is no exception. Chess is clearly too difficult and cannot be tackled with anything other than machine code. 28 When heuristics meet: the strategy of competition 29 Draughts is easier but still results in a very long program. A game that provides just the right level of difficulty is the well known 'noughts and crosses' (also called 'tic-tac-toe').
The best interpretation that we have of probability is in terms of the number of times something happens. For example, if you toss an unbiased coin a great many times it will come up heads roughly half of them. 5' is a statement about what proportion of heads we would expect to see in a large number of throws. This idea generalises quite simply to an interpretation of the probability of other events as the proportion of the time that they occur in the long run. This all sounds like a good solid, realistic way to understand probability and it is generally considered to be the best.
Rather than continue with theory and explanation it is easier and more instructive to proceed straight to a simple BASIC expert system. The Aardvark program All this talk of knowledge rules and expert systems may seem convincing, but does it work? To demonstrate how powerful the idea is, the program given below will learn to become an expert on types of animals. The reason why types of animal has been used is that this particular program has a long history in one form or 44 Thinking and reasoning: expert systems another and has always been presented with an animal data base.
Artificial Intelligence in Basic by Mike James (Auth.)