By T. H. Rigby
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Additional info for Authority, Power and Policy in the USSR: Essays dedicated to Leonard Schapiro
The essential nature of class society was, in Bukharin's analysis, contained in overlapping patterns of domination and subordination. -ays but was to be sought in a particular relationship between groups of men. '~ It essentially expressed the relationship between those who needed to hire wage-labour and those obliged to sell their wage-labour. It expressed a system of social relationships of domination and subordination. This system of social relationships was, of course, enshrined at the superstructural level, in the law.
An adequate discussion of these matters would require a separate essay (at least) in itself. Nonetheless some aspects of them must be briefly considered. This 'map' implies a concept of power in terms of the exercise of will and conscious choice by favourably placed individuals. However, if my earlier analysis of the authority-system is valid, it is clear that the power exercised by individuals is highly dependent on the political and social structures and the legitimating values which form the context of their action.
All other possible expedients had been tried and failed. The administrative chaos into which Russia had fallen could not be redeemed, in his view, by conventional governmental state forms; only organs of direct democracy of the soviet/commune type could galvanise the people at large into establishing a new legitimate authority. By the same token Russia's desperate military-strategic situation could not be relieved by relying upon a conscript army led and directed by a privileged officer caste, but only by a universal militia which would rouse not merely the people of Russia but the Authority, power and the state, 1916-2o people of the whole world to take up arms against imperialist barbarism.
Authority, Power and Policy in the USSR: Essays dedicated to Leonard Schapiro by T. H. Rigby