By H. Cotton D.Sc. (auth.)
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3 Electric tube of force. terminate on conductor B where they will enclose another area b. 3. 4 Tube of force. of force. 4. Then there would be two small charges of + Q' and - Q' 27 on the same conductor. They would immediately come together and neutralise one another. d. between its ends, from which it follows that since no line of force can both start and terminate on the same conductor, all points at its surface must be at the same potential. Hence the surface of a conductor under static conditions, that is with no current flowing, is an equipotential surface.
F. such as a battery, then only that portion of the energy concerned with the overcoming of resistance will be converted into heat. Thus if a current I flows through a resistor R for t seconds the energy converted into heat is W = / 2Rt joules Note that (i) the heat generated is proportional to the square of the current, (ii) it is proportional to the resistance, (iii) it is proportional to the time the current is passing. If electrical energy is converted into heat energy, as in an electric kettle, then 4180 joules are required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1o C or 1 K (the temperature differences in the two scales being equal).
2. Allowing for experimental errors, which are inevitable unless elaborate precautions are taken, and corrections made, it will be seen that the experimental points lie on a straight line, showing that the heat generated in a specific time is proportional to the square of the current. This assumes a constant 3·0 v / 2·0 "' i .!! 2 Result of the experiment, demonstrating that the heat production in a given time is proportional to the square of the current. resistance for the heating coil; this is the case when manganin is used.
Basic Electrotechnology by H. Cotton D.Sc. (auth.)