Archive For The “Crystallography” Category
By Valentin G. Dmitriev, Gagik G. Gurzadyan, David N. Nikogosyan
Because the invention of the 1st laser 30 years in the past, the frequency conversion of laser radiation in nonlinear optical crystals has develop into a major strategy well-known in quantum electronics and laser physics for fixing numerous medical and engineering difficulties. the elemental physics of three-wave mild interactions in nonlinear optical crystals is now good understood. This has enabled the creation of assorted harmonic turbines, sum-and distinction frequency turbines, and optical parametric oscillators in accordance with nonlinear optical crystals which are now commercially on hand. whilst, scientists proceed an energetic look for novel, hugely effective nonlinear optical fabrics. for that reason, in our opinion, there's a nice desire for a instruction manual of nonlinear optical crystals, meant for experts and practitioners with an engineering historical past. This publication encompasses a whole description of the houses and functions of all nonliner optical crystals of sensible value suggested within the literature as much as the start of 1990. additionally, it includes an important equations for calculating the most parameters (such as phase-matching path, powerful nonlinearity, and conversion potency) of nonlinear frequency converters. Dolgoprudnyi, Yerevan, Troitzk v. G. Dmitriev USSR G. G. Gurzadyan October 1990 D. N. Nikogosyan Contents 1 creation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Optics of Nonlinear Crystals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . three . . . . . .
By Johanna. R Bruckner
In this thesis Johanna Bruckner studies the invention of the lyotropic counterpart of the thermotropic SmC* part, which has develop into well-known because the purely spontaneously polarized, ferroelectric fluid in nature. via polarizing optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electro-optic experiments she firmly establishes features of the constitution of the unconventional lyotropic liquid crystalline section and elucidates its interesting homes, between them a reported polar electro-optic influence, analogous to the ferroelectric switching of its thermotropic counterpart. The helical floor kingdom of the mesophase increases the basic query of the way chiral interactions are "communicated" throughout layers of kind of disordered and achiral solvent molecules that are positioned among adjoining bi-layers of the chiral amphiphile molecules. This thesis bridges an incredible hole among thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals and pioneers a brand new box of liquid crystal research.
By Anthony Kelly, Kevin M. Knowles(auth.)
Chapter 1 Lattice Geometry (pages 1–41):
Chapter 2 element teams and area teams (pages 43–84):
Chapter three Crystal constructions (pages 85–122):
Chapter four Amorphous fabrics and distinctive forms of Crystal–Solid Aggregates (pages 123–140):
Chapter five Tensors (pages 141–163):
Chapter 6 pressure, pressure, Piezoelectricity and Elasticity (pages 165–196):
Chapter 7 flow and Texture (pages 197–239):
Chapter eight Dislocations (pages 241–267):
Chapter nine Dislocations in Crystals (pages 269–304):
Chapter 10 element Defects (pages 305–334):
Chapter eleven Twinning (pages 335–361):
Chapter 12 Martensitic differences (pages 363–390):
Chapter thirteen Crystal Interfaces (pages 391–433):
By P. G. de Gennes, J. Prost
This re-creation of the vintage textual content contains the various advances in wisdom approximately liquid crystals that experience taken position in view that its preliminary booklet in 1974. completely new chapters describe the categories and houses of liquid crystals when it comes to either lately stumbled on stages and present perception into the character of neighborhood order and isotropic-to-nematic transition. there's an intensive dialogue of the symmetrical, macroscopic, dynamic, and faulty homes of smectics and columnar stages, with emphasis on order-of-magnitude concerns, all illustrated with various descriptions of experimental preparations. the ultimate bankruptcy is dedicated to part transitions in smectics, together with the distinguished analogy among smectic A and superconductors. This new version's topicality and breadth of insurance will make sure that it is still an essential advisor for researchers and graduate scholars in mechanics and engineering, and in chemical, stable kingdom, and statistical physics.
By Davide Comoretto
This booklet presents a multidisciplinary viewpoint (ranging from chemistry to physics and biology) of the present examine and purposes of natural and hybrid photonic crystals. The authors element the chemical and actual instruments used to enhance natural photonic crystals, clarify tools for engineering new nano-structures, and suggest novel actual phenomena or technological functions in line with such fabrics. natural and Hybrid Photonic Crystal lasers, sensors, photovoltaic units and stimuli responsive units are discussed.
By P.A. Politzer, JS Murray
This quantity offers an outline of present examine and up to date advances within the zone of vigorous fabrics, concentrating on explosives and propellants. The contents and structure mirror the truth that conception, scan and computation are heavily associated during this field.The problem of constructing lively fabrics which are much less delicate to unintended stimuli remains to be of severe significance. This quantity opens with discussions of a few determinants of sensitivity and its correlations with a variety of molecular and crystal homes. the subsequent numerous chapters deal in significant element with diverse facets and mechanisms of the initiation of detonation, and its quantitative description. the second one 1/2 this quantity focuses upon combustion. broad experiences version ignition and combustion, with purposes to various propellants. the ultimate bankruptcy is an exhaustive computational remedy of the mechanism and kinetics of combustion initiation reactions of ammonium perchlorate.Overall, this quantity illustrates the development that has been made within the box of full of life fabrics and a few of the components of present task. It additionally exhibits the demanding situations eager about characterizing and figuring out the homes and behavior of those compounds. The paintings is a different state of the art remedy of the topic, written by means of pre-eminent researchers within the box.
By Willem Kuyk (auth.)
As lengthy as algebra and geometry The unreasonable effectiveness of proceeded alongside separate paths, arithmetic in technology . . . Eugene Wigner their improve used to be gradual and their purposes constrained. but if those sciences joined Weil, should you understands of a higher 'oie, corporation, they drew from each one visit it. Bruce Bairnsfather different clean energy and thence ahead marched on at a quick speed what's now proved was purely in the direction of perfeetion. imagined. Wi1liam Blake J oseph Louis Lagrange transforming into specialization and diversification have introduced a number of monographs and textbooks on more and more really expert issues. besides the fact that, the 'tree' of information of arithmetic and comparable fields doesn't develop basically via placing forth new branches. It additionally occurs, normally in truth, that branches that have been considered thoroughly disparate are without notice visible to be comparable. This sequence of books, arithmetic and Its functions, is dedicated to such (new) interrelations as exempla gratia: - a principal suggestion which performs an enormous position in numerous diverse mathematical and/or medical really good parts; Editor's Preface eight - new functions of the implications and concepts from one sector of medical activity into one other; - affects which the consequences, difficulties and ideas of 1 box of inquiry have and feature had at the improvement of one other. With books on subject matters resembling those, of reasonable size and cost, that are stimulating instead of definitive, fascinating instead of encyclopaedic, we are hoping to give a contribution anything in the direction of greater communique one of the practitioners in assorted fields.
By Uri Shmueli
The final goal of quantity B is to supply the user/reader with powerfuble and necessary money owed of the various features of reciprocal area in crystallographic learn. a number of chapters were revised and up-to-date for the second one version, and 5 new chapters were further (see Contents below). After an introductory bankruptcy, half 1 offers the reader with an account of structure-factor formalisms, an in depth remedy of the idea, algorithms and crystallographic functions of Fourier equipment, and primary in addition to complicated remedies of symmetry in reciprocal space.In half 2, those common money owed are through specified expositions of crystallographic facts, the idea of direct equipment, Patterson strategies, isomorphous substitute and anomalous scattering, and coverings of the function of electron microscopy and diffraction in crystal constitution selection, together with functions of direct how you can electron crystallography. half three offers with functions of reciprocal area to molecular geometry and 'best'-plane calculations, and encompasses a remedy of the foundations of molecular images and modelling and their purposes; it concludes with the presentation of a convergence-acceleration approach to value within the computation of approximate lattice sums. half four comprises remedies of varied diffuse-scattering phenomena coming up from crystal dynamics, sickness and occasional dimensionality (liquid crystals), and an exposition of the underlying theories and/or experimental proof. the recent additions to this half are remedies of polymer crystallography and of reciprocal-space photographs of aperiodic crystals. half five of the amount comprises introductory treatmentsof the speculation of the interplay of radiation with subject (dynamical idea) as utilized to X-ray, electron and (new for the second one variation) neutron diffraction innovations. you will need to observe that the simplified trigonometric expressions for the constitution components within the 230 third-dimensional house teams, which seemed in quantity I of foreign Tables of X-ray Crystallography, can now be present in Appendix 1.4.3 to bankruptcy 1.4 of quantity B. the amount is an important addition to the library of scientists engaged in crystal constitution choice, crystallographic computing, crystal physics and different fields of crystallographic learn. Graduate scholars focusing on crystallography will locate a lot fabric compatible for self-study and a wealthy resource of references to the appropriate literature.
By K. Byrappa
Quartz, zeolites, gem stones, perovskite kind oxides, ferrite, carbon allotropes, advanced coordinated compounds and plenty of moreùall items now being produced utilizing hydrothermal know-how. guide of Hydrothermal expertise brings jointly the newest recommendations during this speedily advancing box in a single tremendously worthwhile, long-needed quantity. The guide presents a unmarried resource for realizing how aqueous solvents or mineralizers paintings lower than temperature and strain to dissolve and recrystallize commonly insoluble fabrics, and decompose or recycle any waste materials. the end result, because the authors convey within the e-book, is technologically the best approach in crystal development, fabrics processing, and waste therapy. The ebook offers scientists and technologists an summary of the complete topic including:ò Evolution of the know-how from geology to common commercial use.ò Descriptions of apparatus utilized in the method and the way it works.ò difficulties concerned with the expansion of crystals, processing of technological fabrics, environmental and safeguard issues.ò research of the path of cutting-edge technology.In addition, readers get a detailed examine the hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites, fluorides, sulfides, tungstates, and molybdates, in addition to local parts and easy oxides. Delving into the industrial construction of assorted kinds, the authors make clear the consequences of temperature, strain, solvents, and numerous different chemical parts at the hydrothermal tactics.
By Shih-Lin Chang
This accomplished textual content describes the basics of X-ray multiple-wave interplay in crystals and its functions in condensed subject physics and crystallography. It covers present theoretical ways and alertness tools for lots of fabrics, together with macromolecular crystals, skinny motion pictures, semiconductors, quasicrystals and nonlinear optical fabrics. X-ray optics can be addressed. Designed essentially as a reference for researchers in condensed topic, crystallography, fabrics technology, and synchrotron-related issues, the publication can also be invaluable as a textbook for graduate and senior-year undergraduate classes on exact issues in X-ray diffraction.