By Prof. Dr. Karl Leonhard (auth.), Prof. Dr. med. Dr. h. c. Helmut Beckmann (eds.)
Karl Leonhard’s "Classification of Endogenous Psychoses” relies on subtle medical descriptions and characteristical symptom styles happening through the long term process psychiatric illnesses. A analysis could be made provided that the entire scientific positive factors healthy, i.e. a unique analysis will not be made if one attribute symptom is missing. this is often the most and demanding distinction among Leonhard’s class and the operational diagnostic platforms that require the presence of a few yet now not all particular signs of a symptom cluster. Leonhard took over the fundamental good points because the early days of Psychiatry and located, continuously in line with personal live-long case reports, that the endogenous psychoses need to be divided into 5 major nosological various teams: at the one aspect the prognostically beneficial unipolar affective psychoses, bipolar affective psychoses and cycloid psychoses and at the different facet the prognostically negative unsystematic and systematic schizophrenias. in the meantime its reliability and validity were proven via medical experiences and early effects supply guidance concerning the diverse origins and sundry healing techniques for the explicit sickness profiles.
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Additional resources for Classification of Endogenous Psychoses and their Differentiated Etiology
Deficient capacity for normal emotional reactions moreover leads to impoverishment of interest; this is recognizable subjectively as well as objectively. On the same basis arises a symptom, which we will begin to know more thoroughly in the description of "apathetic depression" that is, the patients' complaint that they have no feelings at all, that they cannot even feel sad anymore. The complaint of no longer being able to cry fits in here almost of necessity, for crying only occurs when there are fluctuations of mood, as I have described elsewhere (LEONHARD 1976 b).
K. SCHNEIDER'S concept of "vital" depression is very much like that of pure melancholia. e. incomprehensible by normal mentality) mood. In mild cases, the patients appear almost more apathetic than actually depressive; in severe cases, however, deep suffering develops. We will later find anxiety to be a special component of the emotional disturbance of pure depression. It is certainly also included in melancholic depression but is generally covered up by other emotional components and by inhibition often declared subjectively.
Again the longer no answer is forthcoming the greater is the temptation to assume an obstinate refusal to cooperate. However it is beyond doubt that it is the anxiety which so fully dominates thinking and acting that there is no room for anything else. In our present therapeutic era of neuroleptic treatment such severe forms of agitation are no longer found. However, the constant complaining may not be totally suppressed by medication. It is nevertheless advantageous that I present some patients as they behaved without medication.
Classification of Endogenous Psychoses and their Differentiated Etiology by Prof. Dr. Karl Leonhard (auth.), Prof. Dr. med. Dr. h. c. Helmut Beckmann (eds.)