By Francois Ruf, Götz Schroth
The monoculture platforms which were inspired through governments because the Nineteen Sixties have ended in significant socio-economic and environmental crises. Now the diversification of tree crop platforms is advancing during the tropics. Why and while does diversification occur? What different types of farmers diversify? What stumbling blocks have they got to beat, and the way do private and non-private rules intrude during this strategy? How do land use platforms and landscapes evolve because of this diversification? in line with the authors of this quantity, diversification is unquestionably a reaction to industry dangers, but additionally to the depletion of environmental assets. Ecological alterations resembling declining soil fertility and lengthening strain from pests, illnesses and weeds accentuate on the finish of monoculture cycles, using crop swap and diversification of farming platforms. via 15 case reviews from Africa, Latin the United States, Asia and the Pacific, the authors supply us with in-depth insights into the economic climate and ecology of relations agriculture and its contemporary developments.
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Additional resources for Economics and Ecology of Diversification: The Case of Tropical Tree Crops
5). However, the most diversiﬁed farms in south-western Cameroon belonged to older farmers. Perhaps because their cocoa was also older, they had encountered problems of replanting earlier on and had to take recourse to diversiﬁcation (Chap. 11). Sayam and Cheyns (Chap. 4) suggest that retirees in Côte d’Ivoire reinvested their pensions in their farms, often by diversifying into oil palm. Later on, in the late 2000s, it was rubber that took the fancy of the retirees (Chap. 2). Chambon and Mokoko (Chap.
Such was the case of oil palm in Ghana (Chap. 5), rubber in Côte d’Ivoire (Chap. 7) and Ghana (Chap. 8), as well as rubber, oil palm and orange trees in Cameroon (Chap. 10). 1 Factors Affecting the Timing of Diversiﬁcation Availability of Investment Capital If the desire for an increase in income was the sole driver of diversiﬁcation, farmers would diversify when the prices of their current crops dropped below those of other crops (Trivedi 1992). But the reality is not always so simple. There are often long delays in product diversiﬁcation to B (a new crop) away from A (the existing crop) even when the B/A price ratio overwhelmingly favours B.
This principle of imitation is particularly applicable to tree crops, with innovators taking a risk that is proportional to the length of the unproductive stage. The majority of farmers wait for the results and then copy the innovators once they are successful. This is how cocoa cultivation spread in Indonesia (Burger and Pomp 1995). This imitation effect ampliﬁes the impact of government projects when they perform well, with imitators of the direct project beneﬁciaries also adopting the crop. Such was the case of oil palm in Ghana (Chap.
Economics and Ecology of Diversification: The Case of Tropical Tree Crops by Francois Ruf, Götz Schroth