By Harald Ibach, Peter W. Hawkes
Electron power loss spectroscopy has develop into an vital device in floor research. even supposing the elemental physics of this method is easily understood, tool layout has formerly principally been left to instinct. This booklet is the 1st to supply a accomplished remedy of the electron optics interested in the construction of extreme monochromatic beams and the detection of scattered electrons. It encompasses a complete 3-dimensional research of the electron optical homes of electron emission structures, monochromators and lens structures, putting specific emphasis at the tactics for matching a number of the elements. the outline is saved mathematically uncomplicated and makes a speciality of sensible facets, with many tricks for writing desktop codes to calculate and optimize electrostatic lens components.
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Additional info for Electron energy loss spectrometers: the technology of high performance
45] based upon weighted cross-correlation (WCC) functions which are normalised and can be adapted to account for shifts in peak positions. The WCC procedure employs the concept of a ‘neighbourhood’, by which individual points in the profile are compared not just with exactly equivalent points in the reference profile, but also with points in the local neighbourhood, the scope of which is defined by a triangle function of specified width. Triangle functions that are narrow ignore the neighbourhood of the points in the profile, leading to strict requirements for similarity, while triangle functions that are broad lead often to uniformly high similarity values.
Taken to its extreme, cluster analysis can be made to show that each structure in a dataset is unique. At the other extreme, suitably liberal criteria will cluster all structures into a single group, without any discriminatory power. The most effective clustering level obviously lies somewhere between, and requires some level of input regarding how the results are to be interpreted. An effective procedure usually involves initial clustering into a small group of distinctly different clusters, which can then be sub-clustered to reveal more subtle differences.
4), together with a list of constraints on bond lengths, bond angles or bond torsion angles. 4 A generalised 3DSEARCH query containing three substructures (1–3) with four specified connections. ). The connections are defined between specified atoms in each substructure and can be constrained using a range of criteria (intra- or intermolecular, distance, angle, torsion). Reproduced from  by permission of the International Union of Crystallography criteria, such as particular interatomic distances.
Electron energy loss spectrometers: the technology of high performance by Harald Ibach, Peter W. Hawkes