By James N. Sneddon
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Extra info for Indonesian Reference Grammar
2. A word can be complex in a number of ways. It can consist of reduplicated bases, such as buku-buku ‘books’. 10–29. It can be a compound of two bases, such as asal-usul ‘origin’. 30–5. A word can also consist of a base with one or more affixes, such as membukukan ‘enter in a book’, diperlebar ‘widened’, kedudukan ‘situation’. 38. There are three types of affix in Indonesian: prefixes, suffixes and circumfixes. A prefix is attached before the base. When a prefix is discussed separately it is indicated by a hyphen after it, such as ber-.
45). 30, some combinations, such as peti es ‘ice box’, only have idiomatic meaning when forming the base of a complex word. 33 Some compound nouns form the base for verbs, such as the following: kambing hitam scapegoat mengkambing-hitamkan put the blame on, make a scapegoat tandatangan signature menandatangani sign titik berat centre of gravity, menitik-beratkan stress, most important aspect emphasise (titik ‘dot, point’; berat ‘heavy’) A few compound nouns consist of two verb bases. 35 In a number of cases, two nouns can be juxtaposed to form a compound where the words are separated by ‘and’ in English.
See also intransitive verb and transitive verb. verbal clause A clause whose predicate centre is a verb, such as Mereka sedang makan ‘They are eating’. verbal complement A complement which is a verb or verbal clause, such as merokok ‘smoke’ in Dia berhenti merokok ‘He stopped smoking’. See also complement verb. vocative A word which addresses the person being spoken to, such as pak in Selamat pagi, pak ‘Good morning, sir’. voice The form of a clause which determines whether the subject will identify the actor (active voice) or the patient (passive voice).
Indonesian Reference Grammar by James N. Sneddon