By Laurence G. Britton
Written via Laurence Britton, who has over twenty years' event within the fields of static ignition and procedure hearth and explosion dangers study, this source addresses a space no longer commonly coated in technique safeguard criteria or literature: realizing and decreasing strength risks linked to static electrical energy. The ebook covers the character of static electrical energy, features and powerful energies of alternative static assets, recommendations for comparing static electrical energy dangers, basic bonding, grounding, and different concepts used to manage static or hinder ignition, gases and beverages, powders and hybrid combos.
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Additional info for Avoiding Static Ignition Hazards in Chemical Operations
A change in specification, such as a low sulfur requirement, is likely to lower a variety of other components that act as charge carriers, resulting in a 16 2. FUNDAMENTALS OF STATIC ELECTRICITY reduction in conductivity. However, the use of conductive bulk components, such as ethanol in gasohol, might not increase the conductivity to the extent expected owing to compensating factors in the new formulation. ), any of which can impact conductivity. Following formulation, the conductivity is impacted by handling which may introduce water and other “heavies” from tank bottoms, or might involve preferential removal of certain components in clay filters, filter coalescers or water layers.
This is consistent with the high frequency of ignition when unpurged resins are conveyed into silos containing air (6-5). Since effective energy is an equivalent spark ignition energy, an important consideration is the maximum power density that a nonspark discharge can exert. Qualitatively, a high power density corresponds to the channeling of energy into a short-duration (50–500 ns) spark-like hotspot while a low power density corresponds to a long duration (10–250 ms) spatially diffuse discharge.
FUNDAMENTALS OF STATIC ELECTRICITY 23 PLATE 2. Positive brush discharge from negatively charged plastic to grounded sphere. ble in most systems. Exceptions include atmospheric electricity and some electrostatic process operations. Ignition currents for ignition sensitive gases such as acetylene in air have not been determined but might be less than 100 mA. 1. 1). 5%) ethylene in air. The discharges could be controlled by increasing the resistive coupling of the needle above 10 MW at 5 kV and 50 MW at 17 kV .
Avoiding Static Ignition Hazards in Chemical Operations by Laurence G. Britton