Download e-book for kindle: Extra-Ordinary Ergonomics: How to Accommodate Small and Big by Karl H.E. Kroemer

By Karl H.E. Kroemer

ISBN-10: 0203025245

ISBN-13: 9780203025246

ISBN-10: 0849336686

ISBN-13: 9780849336683

Kroemer provides a advisor for execs in ergonomics on layout suggestions that accommodate humans outdoors what's thought of a ''normal'' physique kind. He discusses how you can investigate actual skills, physique alterations, and engineering components in case you are smaller, weaker, larger, disabled, getting older, pregnant, or for kids and teens. An appendix lists details on physique sizes world wide. Kroemer is a former professor of ergonomics

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Additional resources for Extra-Ordinary Ergonomics: How to Accommodate Small and Big Persons, the Disabled and Elderly, Expectant Mothers, and Children

Sample text

Books written for ergonomists (including that by Kroemer, 1997b) and many physiology texts (such as Astrand & Rodahl, 1986; Schmidt & Thews, 1989) provide information about the physical load posed by work tasks and the measurement of a person’s ability to perform such work. This information can guide the assessment of the physiological demands posed by today’s tasks and, similarly, determine the capabilities of “extranormal” persons to meet the task requirements. Of course, many persons with disabilities cannot perform some regular activities: Consider walking or running by a leg amputee or a frail senior.

The afferent (sensory) part of the PNS (aPNS) collects information from internal body sensors and from sensors that react to external stimuli and transmits the information to the CNS. The CNS includes the brain and sections of the spinal cord, in which the incoming signals are processed, decisions made, and control signals generated. The efferent (motor) part of the PNS (ePNS) then transmits the control commands to body organs, especially muscles. The ANS is responsible for general activation of the body and its emergency responses and emotions.

Movements may be simple, such as lifting a finger in response to a stimulus, or complex, such as moving a foot from the gas pedal to the brake pedal in an automobile. That foot movement involves not only more complicated motion elements than lifting the finger but also larger body (and shoe) masses that must be shifted, so this elaborate movement takes more time. RESPONSE TIME Minimizing the response time, the sum of the reaction and motion times, is a common engineering goal. The ergonomist achieves this by optimizing the stimulus and selecting the body part that is best suited to the task.

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Extra-Ordinary Ergonomics: How to Accommodate Small and Big Persons, the Disabled and Elderly, Expectant Mothers, and Children by Karl H.E. Kroemer

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